The advent of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and the Materials Genome Initiative has drawn broad attention of both industry and academic communities in computational materials science and materials design. Multiscale modeling has a range of end uses, and typically addresses a desire to incorporate fine scale phenomena in coarse scale modeling and simulation. Designing materials for targeted performance requirements demands a combined strategy of bottom-up and top-down modeling, simulation, and systems engineering. Computational materials science and multiscale mechanics models play key roles in evaluating performance metrics necessary to support materials design. This talk explores aspects and key issues of design of materials with hierarchical microstructure. Components of a practical approach for robust design of materials to achieve specified functionality are presented. Distinctions are explored between requirements and goals of multiscale modeling and materials design.